I've lived in Texas for nearly 20 years. I moved here (from Oklahoma) to go to school, then I joined the army for specialized job training, and got stationed in Texas by chance, and when I got out I intended to stay in Texas to find work. I did. I have a great job, and I'm very happy.
I live in Killeen, which is not a great city, but not terrible. Size-wise, it's between small town and big city, which I like. Being an army town, there are not a lot of professional-level jobs here that are not supporting the military. I am a contractor for the military, working in satellite communications.
Texas is a sufficiently large state that you can pretty much get the experience you would find in any state in the Union, depending on what part you move to. Austin is very liberal, and DFW is not far behind. Most of the big cities are fairly liberal, and most of the rural communities are quite conservative, probably what you are used to. Overall, the population of Texas is about 60% conservative, though there are not as many die-hard conservatives or liberals as you might expect. Whatever your political beliefs, there are parts of Texas that you would fit into comfortably.
People in Texas are generally friendly, even to people who are "not like them." Friendliness is generally at a neighborly smalltalk level, somewhere between the "I'm too busy to talk to you" of busy coastal states, and "I just met you, tell me your life story" of the northern midwest.
Religion is at about the same level. We have our share of everything from atheists to religious zealots. Mostly Christian, as you would guess, but plenty of other religions too. It typically isn't a thing that causes conflict here.
The weather in the state varies greatly, depending on where you are. I live in Central Texas "hill country," which despite the name is rather flat and rocky. It gets hot here, and very humid. The winters are fairly mild, but we have some below-zero days most years. Other parts of Texas are very green with beautiful forests, and obviously the climate gets warmer the further south you get, and cooler the further north you are.
The economy of Texas is overall very good. We have plenty of work opportunities here, but more professional jobs are available in the bigger cities and surrounding areas. Our cost of living is outstanding throughout 90% of the state. In the big cities (especially Austin), real estate gets quite expensive, though not at California levels. We do not have a state income tax, but we do have a sales tax, 8.25% in most areas.
For somebody moving here, I would recommend you find a job in or near a big city (if it's a fairly high-paying job), and live in a suburb of one of those cities, say with a 30 minute commute or so. That will keep your rent from being too exorbitant, and will keep you out of inner city slums. Traffic in Austin is horrendous. DFW gets heavy traffic as well, but not as bad most days. I can't speak for Houston or San Antonio. El Paso is a mostly slummy city, very hot and dry, and I do not care for it.